Englisch betrifft uns 2| // After the Brexit Referendum //. Ute Ritzenhofen. What Next for Scotland? Schottland nach der Brexit-Entscheidung. (Sekundarstufe. Scotland and Brexit. To take the desire to remain in the EU first: In the EU referendum, in which overall the UK voted by % to leave. Scottish independence – another referendum on the horizon? The outcome of the EU referendum brought the issue of how Scotland should be governed.
Sick of Brexit, Scotland's Sturgeon vows new independence vote in 2020Nicola Sturgeon, Chefin der Scottish National Party (SNP) hält am Im Streit um ein neues Unabhängigkeitsreferendum in Schottland sind. Englisch betrifft uns 2| // After the Brexit Referendum //. Ute Ritzenhofen. What Next for Scotland? Schottland nach der Brexit-Entscheidung. (Sekundarstufe. Local results for areas beginning with A in the EU Referendum from BBC News.
Scotland Referendum Brexit Accessibility links VideoBoris Johnson rules out second Brexit and Scottish independence referendums But for a not-yet-sovereign nation hoping to soon be one, Scotland has some work to do, Hughes said. Kate Forbes SNP. Responses by politicians to the possibility of a referendum have been both pro-referendum and anti-referendum. International Business Times.
A move towards Brexit is also going to affect Northern Ireland. In short, there are likely to be slightly different customs rules for Northern Ireland — because of the land border with the Republic of Ireland, an EU country — and the rest of the United Kingdom.
In Northern Ireland, nationalists also made gains. Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.
In January , Nigel Farage and the Leave. EU campaign became part of the Grassroots Out movement, which was borne out of infighting between Vote Leave and Leave.
EU campaigners. The UK Government's official position was to support the Remain campaign. Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.
This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.
The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.
The Vote Leave campaign argued that if the UK left the EU, national sovereignty would be protected, immigration controls could be imposed, and the UK would be able to sign trade deals with the rest of the world.
The UK would also be able to stop membership payments to the EU every week. The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a body responsible for making decisions on policy and organising governmental departments ; it is chaired by the Prime Minister and contains most of the government's ministerial heads.
Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell ,  BT  and Vodafone ,  with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.
Many UK-based businesses, including Sainsbury's , remained steadfastly neutral, concerned that taking sides in the divisive issue could lead to a backlash from customers.
In the week following conclusion of the UK's renegotiation and especially after Boris Johnson announced that he would support the UK leaving , the pound fell to a seven-year low against the dollar and economists at HSBC warned that it could drop even more.
European banking analysts also cited Brexit concerns as the reason for the Euro's decline. Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February However, when the result for Sunderland was announced, it indicated an unexpected swing to 'Leave'.
It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash. The referendum was generally well-accepted by European far right.
Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".
Dutch politician Geert Wilders , leader of the Party for Freedom , said that the Netherlands should follow Britain's example: "Like in the s, once again Britain could help liberate Europe from another totalitarian monster, this time called 'Brussels'.
Again, we could be saved by the British. Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström said on 11 June that if Britain left the EU, other countries would have referendums on whether to leave the EU, and that if Britain stayed in the EU, other countries would negotiate, ask and demand to have special treatment.
Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.
In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian newspaper, undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.
Obama said: "Having the UK in the EU gives us much greater confidence about the strength of the transatlantic union, and is part of the cornerstone of the institutions built after World War II that has made the world safer and more prosperous.
We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. President Barack Obama of interfering in the Brexit vote,   with Boris Johnson calling the intervention a "piece of outrageous and exorbitant hypocrisy"  and UKIP leader Nigel Farage accusing him of "monstrous interference", saying "You wouldn't expect the British Prime Minister to intervene in your presidential election, you wouldn't expect the Prime Minister to endorse one candidate or another.
Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration,  while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.
In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".
Chinese diplomats have stated "off the record" that the People's Republic sees the EU as a counterbalance to American economic power, and that an EU without Britain would mean a stronger United States.
In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned for the UK to leave the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy.
In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".
Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit.
Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said: "I want to say it is none of our business, it is the business of the people of the UK.
We are not involved in this process in any way. We don't have any interest in it. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.
The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: a 10 percent point rise in the proportion of migrants working in low-skilled services drove down the average wages of low-skilled workers by about 2 percent.
From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play-off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.
World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas J. Firzli has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: "Every year, the British Parliament is forced to pass tens of new statutes reflecting the latest EU directives coming from Brussels — a highly undemocratic process known as ' transposition ' Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".
Thiemo Fetzer, professor of Economics from University of Warwick , analyzed the welfare reforms in the UK since and suggests that numerous austerity-induced welfare reforms from onwards have stopped contributing to mitigate income differences through transfer payments.
This could be a key activating factor of anti-EU preferences that lie behind the development of economic grievances and the lack of support in a Remain victory.
Michael Jacobs, the current director of the Commission on Economic Justice at the Institute for Public Policy Research and Mariana Mazzucato, a professor in University College London in Economics of Innovation and Public Value have found that the Brexit campaign had the tendency to blame external forces for domestic economic problems and have argued that the problems within the economy wasn't due to 'unstoppable forces of globalisation' but rather the result of active political and business decisions.
Instead, they claim that orthodox economic theory has guided poor economic policy such as investment and that has been the cause of problems within the British economy.
The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson, said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.
That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.
Michael Dougan , Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.
In particular, eight out of 10 respondents felt that leaving the EU would have a negative impact on trusts' ability to recruit health and social care staff.
Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have limited UK health organizations' commentary on EU poll, according to anonymous sources consulted by the Lancet.
In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.
They said: "As historians of Britain and of Europe, we believe that Britain has had in the past, and will have in the future, an irreplaceable role to play in Europe.
Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.
Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.
It was later criticised for overestimating the margin of the "Remain" vote,  when it became clear a few hours later that the UK had voted The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.
The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.
Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue.
Whereas those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be.
Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received.
Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.
After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: "Polling suggests discontent with the scale of migration to the UK has been the biggest factor pushing Britons to vote out, with the contest turning into a referendum on whether people are happy to accept free movement in return for free trade.
The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom.
The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay". The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.
The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.
In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.
In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.
Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.
Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.
The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , a pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall , West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.
EU had continued to put out advertising the day after Jo Cox's murder. On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated.
Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.
On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station.
After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed. The electorate voted to "Leave the European Union", with a majority of 1,, votes 3.
Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggests that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower qualifications and higher age.
Researchers based at the University of Warwick found that areas with "deprivation in terms of education, income and employment were more likely to vote Leave".
The Leave vote tended to be greater in areas which had lower incomes and high unemployment, a strong tradition of manufacturing employment, and in which the population had fewer qualifications.
The main reason people voted Remain was that "the risks of voting to leave the EU looked too great when it came to things like the economy, jobs and prices".
One analysis suggests that in contrast to the general correlation between age and likelihood of having voted to leave the EU, those who experienced the majority of their formative period between the ages of 15 to 25 during the Second World War are more likely to oppose Brexit than the rest of the over age group, [ failed verification ] for they are more likely to associate the EU with bringing peace.
EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. However, it affirmed that Scotland's independence would have to be accepted by the United Kingdom for Scotland to obtain EU membership: "There now seems to be a consensus that, were Scotland to become independent by legal means, it could join the [European] Union".
Without such an opt-out, passport controls may be required between Scotland and the CTA members. With Brexit, such support was due to be ended with a new payment system introduced.
The Scottish Government would be required to negotiate a new settlement on agricultural subsidy and fishing subsidies and regulations with the European Union upon seeking membership.
In the referendum, the Scottish Government had advocated remaining in a currency union with the United Kingdom.
This was refuted by the United Kingdom Government and opposition parties as a policy that no party would support in government.
However, the currency would not be adopted until several key economic tests were satisfied, and until then an SNP government would have a policy of Sterlingisation of the Scottish economy and state.
Although the Scottish Government have paused independence referendum planning, the impact of the COVID pandemic on the economy will be present for many years.
In , Scotland exported around three and a half times more to the rest of the UK than to the rest of the EU,  while in , that had increased to around four times more to the rest of the UK than to the rest of the EU.
Responses by politicians to the possibility of a referendum have been both pro-referendum and anti-referendum.
This generally tends to show independence supporters favouring a referendum, with those against independence being against one.
Scottish Greens co-convener Patrick Harvie , on 13 March welcomed the confirmation from the First Minister that she is seeking a Section 30 Order from the UK Government to give the Scottish Parliament temporary power to hold an independence referendum.
The Scottish Independence Convention backs calls for a referendum. As a result, the Convention established Voices for Scotland as a civic campaign for independence based on conversations and discussions of what Scotland could look like.
Alison Evison, President of the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities COSLA and Scottish Labour councillor for Aberdeenshire has stated her support for a referendum on independence, stating "We can strengthen it [democracy] by enabling the voice of Scotland to be heard through its formal processes and that must mean a referendum on independence" .
In November during the lead up to the UK general election , leader of the Conservatives and Prime Minister Boris Johnson stated that a Conservative government would not permit a second independence referendum, vowing to "protect our magnificent union".
Former Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn said in March that a referendum would be "absolutely fine" and that "I don't think it's the job of Westminster or the Labour Party to prevent people holding referenda.
That is what we will do. A spokesperson speaking on behalf of Cameron's successor as Conservative Party Leader and Prime Minister, Theresa May , said in October "The prime minister and the government does not believe that there is a mandate for [a second referendum].
There was one only two years ago. There was an extremely high turnout and there was a resounding result in favour of Scotland remaining in the UK.
Interim Scottish Conservative leader Jackson Carlaw has stated his opposition to a referendum. He has said; "We will not support another independence referendum for a generation.
He has stated that 40 years is what he sees as the time needed between referenda. Scottish Labour leader Richard Leonard is against an independence referendum.
He has stated that Scotland should seek a new devolution settlement rather than becoming an independent country. Scottish Liberal Democrats leader Willie Rennie said in March , "We stood on a platform last May where we said we were against independence and against another independence referendum",  he also said, "No independence referendum, either at Westminster or in the Scottish Parliament — that's the view of the Liberal Democrats.
Since the referendum in September , opinion polls have asked how people would vote in a hypothetical second referendum. These polls have been carried out since six weeks after the referendum.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the independence referendum that took place in September , see Scottish independence referendum. Putative referendum.
The Crown. UK General Elections. Intergovernmental Relations. Other countries. That will raise all kinds of issues.
Trending Now Sponsored Links by Taboola. The United Kingdom is going back on the terms of its divorce with Europe, threatening any future trade deals and even the integrity of the U.
An SNP majority would replicate the mandate that led to the referendum. So why a power-grab referendum and not an independence referendum on the same day as the Scottish elections?
It would also create the only possible conditions for anti-SNP tactical voting and possibly even threaten an SNP majority. Additionally, it would open up two spoiler tactics for Westminster to undermine Scottish independence.
Independence after such a poll would not generate the swift and vital international recognition for independence to facilitate trade and diplomatic relations.
This issue, if managed properly can unite Scotland and holds the key to increasing independence support even into the 60s and its also the key to forcing a pre-negotiated referendum.
The CRG believes that the blueprint could be used to resolve the pressing issue, by proposing a federal structure for the continuation of the Union, establishing the principle of self-determination among all four parts.
Talking exclusively to Express. The former Leader of the House of Lords argued that it was the nature of the devolution bills of the late Nineties that led to today's crisis, and not the EU referendum.
All of us need to take stock of this decision, and put the stability of our country first. US presidential hopeful Donald Trump, who has arrived in Scotland to visit his Trump Turnberry golf resort, meanwhile said it was a "great thing" that the people of the UK had "taken back their country".
Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon told a media conference a second independence referendum was "highly likely" after the UK voted to leave the EU.
The SNP manifesto for May's Holyrood elections said the Scottish Parliament should have the right to hold another referendum if there was a "significant and material change" in the circumstances that prevailed in , such as Scotland being taken out of the EU against its will.
At a news conference in Edinburgh, Ms Sturgeon said: "It is, therefore, a statement of the obvious that a second referendum must be on the table, and it is on the table.
Her predecessor as first minister, Alex Salmond, was quick to suggest there should now be a second Scottish independence referendum.The Scottish Government has proposed holding a second referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom (UK). A first referendum on independence was held in September , with 55% voting "No" to independence. Ahead of that referendum, the Scottish Government stated in its white paper proposing independence that voting Yes was a "once in a generation opportunity to follow a different path, and choose a new and better direction for our nation". Scottish independence polls: how opinion has changed since the referendum - and impact of Brexit and Covid Nicola Sturgeon, the SNP and, more crucially, the latest polling suggest that. The UK voted to leave the EU but Scotland voted to remain Scotland has voted in favour of the UK staying in the EU by 62% to 38% - with all 32 council areas backing Remain. But the UK as a whole. A referendum on the Brexit power grab alongside Holyrood would break the Union. 2 weeks ago. by Gordon MacIntyre-Kemp. Written by Gordon MacIntyre-Kemp. The next Scottish elections on May 6 will be unique in Scottish electoral history. An SNP majority would replicate the mandate that led to the referendum. Brexit is just one reason Scots are increasingly drawn to the idea of living in a small, liberal, European nation state Nicola Sturgeon at the SNP’s conference: ‘She has pledged to ask for the.